Database management is a method for managing the data that supports a business’s operations It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and then modifying it if necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being damaged due to unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables which organize data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most widely used type of database in the present. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also simpler to update data since it does not require changing several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of various external views based on different data models. It also may include virtual table that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.