Database management is the process for managing data that supports the business operations of an organization. It includes data storage and distribution to application programs and users and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged by unexpected failures. It is one component of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that store data according to a certain scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of attributes or fields that contain information about data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most popular database type in the present. This design is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to change several databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level determines how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of different external views (based on different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are created from generic data to improve performance.